Table of Contents > Interactions & Depletions > Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Collard, Kale, Brussels sprouts, Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea) Print

Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Collard, Kale, Brussels sprouts, Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea)



Interactions

Brassica/Drug Interactions:
  • AcetaminophenAcetaminophen: In human studies, cabbage may increase metabolism and decrease levels of acetaminophen by boosting the elimination through glucuronide conjugation (34).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Brassica vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts may decrease the anticoagulant effects of warfarin, due to its high vitamin K content (theoretical). However, in human studies, Brassica vegetables did not significantly interfere with oral anticoagulant therapy, due to the short-term bioavailability of vitamin K from these food sources (35).
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: In studies in both animals and humans, hypoglycemic effects have been shown with the use of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other vegetables, such as green leafy vegetables, beans, and tubers (19).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: Based on human research, mixed green vegetable and fruit beverages containing broccoli may further decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol when taken with antilipemic agents (25).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Based on in vitro studies, indoles present in cabbage, such as indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), may suppress the proliferation of various tumor cells, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer, colon cancer, and leukemic cells (36).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: Based on clinical trial studies, Brassica vegetables such as broccoli may induce CYP1A2 activity (37) and inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (38), which in turn may activate or detoxify xenobiotics. Theoretically, cabbage may also increase drug metabolism and elimination by increasing glucuronide conjugation and by stimulating cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity.
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: Theoretically, cabbage and other Brassica vegetables may have estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity due to phytoestrogens, which are naturally occurring compounds in Brassica vegetables (7).
  • OxazepamOxazepam: Based on human studies, intake of cabbage may enhance the metabolism and elimination of oxazepam through glucuronide conjugation, thereby decreasing oxazepam levels in the body (34).

Brassica/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Brassica vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts may decrease the anticoagulant effects of warfarin, due to its high vitamin K content (theoretical). However, in human studies, Brassica vegetables did not significantly interfere with oral anticoagulant therapy, due to the short-term bioavailability of vitamin K from these food sources (35).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: Based on human research, mixed green vegetable and fruit beverages containing broccoli may further decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol when taken with antilipemic agents (25).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Based on in vitro studies, indoles present in cabbage, such as indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), may suppress the proliferation of various tumor cells, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer, colon cancer, and leukemic cells (36).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: The available evidence suggests that intake of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, especially the Brassica vegetables, may increase the plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and alpha-tocopherol concentrations, thereby indicating increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans (39).
  • CalciumCalcium: Brassica vegetables such as kale are a good source of calcium and may further increase calcium levels when taken with calcium supplements or food sources rich in calcium (40).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplementsCytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplements: Based on clinical trial studies, Brassica vegetables such as broccoli may induce CYP1A2 activity (37) and inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (38), which in turn may activate or detoxify xenobiotics. Theoretically, cabbage may also increase drug metabolism and elimination by increasing glucuronide conjugation and by stimulating cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity.
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In studies in both animals and humans, beneficial hypoglycemic effects have been shown with the use of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other vegetables, such as green leafy vegetables, beans, and tubers (19).
  • IronIron: In a clinical study, the addition of cauliflower as a source of ascorbic acid (65mg) increased the absorption of iron (0.58mg) from a simple Latin American-type meal composed of maize, rice, and black beans (41).
  • PhytoestrogensPhytoestrogens: Theoretically, cabbage and other Brassica vegetables may have estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity due to phytoestrogens, which are naturally occurring compounds in Brassica vegetables (7).
  • QuercetinQuercetin: Quercetin, a flavanol, is found at high concentrations in Brassica vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower, which may have anticarcinogenic and antioxidant effects. Negative interactions with agents taken for cancer are currently lacking, although a synergistic effect has been proposed (42).
  • Vitamin AVitamin A: Carotene-rich yellow and green leafy vegetables, when ingested with minimal fat, may enhance serum carotenoids and total vitamin A content in the body (43).

Brassica/Food Interactions:
  • Foods containing Bra o 3Foods containing Bra o 3: Allergic reaction or cross-reaction may occur in patients who are allergic to cabbage, mustard, peach, and mugwort pollen (22).

Brassica/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: In studies in both animals and humans, beneficial hypoglycemic effects have been shown with the use of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other vegetables, such as green leafy vegetables, beans, and tubers (19).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: Brassica vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts may decrease the anticoagulant effects of warfarin, due to its high vitamin K content (theoretical). However, in human studies, Brassica vegetables did not significantly interfere with oral anticoagulant therapy, due to the short-term bioavailability of vitamin K from these food sources (35).
  • Lipid profileLipid profile: Based on human research, mixed green vegetable and fruit beverages containing broccoli may reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (25).
  • Serum carotenoidsSerum carotenoids: Carotene-rich yellow and green leafy vegetables, when ingested with minimal fat, may enhance serum carotenoids and the total vitamin A content within the body and may restore low liver vitamin A concentrations to normal concentrations (43).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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