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Pata de vaca (Bauhinia forficata)



Interactions

Bauhinia/Drug Interactions:
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In animal research, Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (6), Bauhinia purpurea extract (93; 94), Bauhinia splendens stems (95), and Bauhinia microstachya extract and constituents (96; 97) were found to have analgesic effects. In vitro, a triterpene saponin from Bauhinia variegata was found to have antinociceptive activity (34).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: In vitro, Bauhinia tomentosa and Bauhinia vahlii root extract (2), Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (5), and Bauhinia constituents (98; 11) were found to have antibacterial effects.
  • AnticoagulantsAnticoagulants: In vitro, the aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata had anticoagulant and antifibrinogenolytic properties against snake venoms that stimulated blood clotting (9). Characterization of some protease inhibitors, such as Kunitz- and trypsin-inhibitors (Bauhinia ungulata; BuXI, Bauhinia variegata; BvTI) has been conducted (99); peptides from these inhibitors were found to either prolong prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time or alter blood-clotting assays. In vitro, Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) inactivated factor Xa and a prothrombin activator proteinase isolated from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristles venom (74).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In patients with type 2 diabetes, there was a lack of effect of Bauhinia forficata on fasting plasma glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin levels (73). However, animal studies have shown the hypoglycemic effects of various Bauhinia species, including the dried or butanol extracts, as well as decoction, of Bauhinia forficata Link (62; 63; 64; 65), the butanolic extract or dried leaf infusion of Bauhinia candicans leaves (66; 67), Bauhinia divaricata (68), Bauhinia retusa (69), the methanolic extract of Bauhinia cheilandra leaves (70), and constituents (kaempferitrin) from Bauhinia forficata (71; 72). Reduced urinary glucose levels due to Bauhinia candicans (66) and Bauhinia forficata (65) were shown in animal models. In animal research, treatment with oral Bauhinia megalandra simultaneously with oral glucose improved glucose tolerance; this improvement did not occur when glucose was given subcutaneously (100).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre (31), extracts of Bauhinia tomentosa and Bauhinia vahlii roots (2), Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (5), and Bauhinia constituents (98; 11) were found to have antifungal effects.
  • Antigout agentsAntigout agents: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea normalized serum uric acid in a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model (29). In a diabetic pregnant animal model, Bauhinia forficata extract resulted in reduced uric acid concentrations (92).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: In animal research, Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (6), Bauhinia purpurea stem extract (93), Bauhinia tarapotensis leaf extract (101), Bauhinia purpurea leaf extract (94), Bauhinia tomentosa extract (7), and Bauhinia variegata constituents (102) were found to have anti-inflammatory effects. In animal research, BbCI, a plant neutrophil elastase inhibitor isolated from Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds, inhibited leukocyte migration, adhesion, and cytokine release during stimulated inflammatory conditions (103). In animal research, both Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (6) and Bauhinia purpurea leaf extract (94) were found to have antipyretic effects.
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In a diabetic animal model, an extract of Bauhinia purpurea, administered with dexamethasone and metformin, normalized serum lipid levels (26). In a diabetic animal model, Bauhinia forficata extracts reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (63). Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata reduced levels of cholesterol, very-low-density lipids (VLDL), and triglyceride, as well as increased levels of high-density lipids, in an animal model (104). Hypocholesterolemic effects of proteins of Bauhinia retusa seeds were reported in animal research (69).
  • AntimalarialsAntimalarials: Antimalarial effects of Bauhinia constituents were shown in vitro (30; 31). In vitro, four metabolites of Bauhinia purpurea were shown to have antimalarial effects (98). Further details are limited at this time.
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre had cytotoxic effects against small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and oral-cavity cancer cell lines (31). Antiproliferative effects of other constituents of Bauhinia variegata, such as lectins, were shown in vitro (1). Anticancer (including antimutagenic, antineoplastic, and cytotoxic) effects of various species of Bauhinia (including Bauhinia galpinii, Bauhinia variegata, and Bauhinia racemosa), as well as their constituents, were shown in vitro or in animal models (13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 23).
  • AntiparasiticsAntiparasitics: In vitro, the saline extract and an isolated protein from Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds inhibited cruzipain, a cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi (8). A triterpene saponin from Bauhinia variegata was found to have antischistosomal activity in vitro (34).
  • Anti-toxinsAnti-toxins: In vitro, the aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata had anticoagulant and antifibrinogenolytic properties against snake venoms that stimulated blood clotting (9). In animal research, the insulin-like effects of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract reduced hyperglycemia associated with Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom; however, the authors stated that it also enhanced the lethality of the venom (10).
  • Anti-ulcer agentsAnti-ulcer agents: In animal research, the methanolic extract of the flower buds of Bauhinia racemosa had antiulcerogenic effects against aspirin (37).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia showed antiviral effects against Herpes simplex virus (11; 12). Antiviral effects of Bauhinia species have also been shown in other research; however, details are limited at this time (105). In vitro, a lectin from Bauhinia variegata inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity (1).
  • HematologicsHematologics: In vitro, proteic fractions of Bauhinia forficata seeds had hemagglutinating activity against rabbit red blood cells (106). In vitro, lectins from Bauhinia carronii had hemagglutinating and mitogenic effects (107). A lectin from Bauhinia bauhinioides Mart. (Caesalpinoideae) seeds was found to have proinflammatory effects in animal research (89). An unusual reaction between N-specific Bauhinia lectin and type M erythrocytes has been discussed; however, further details are not available at this time (90). In an animal lymphoma model, an ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata reversed changes in hematological parameters (20); additional details are lacking at this time.
  • HepaticsHepatics: In animal research, Bauhinia variegata bark extract had hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride (25).
  • ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants: In animal research, Bauhinia tomentosa methanol extract increased total leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, the number of alpha-esterase positive cells, and spleen and thymus weights (7).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In animal research, Bauhinia tomentosa methanol extract increased total leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, the number of alpha-esterase positive cells, and spleen and thymus weights (7).
  • Renal agentsRenal agents: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea both protected against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity (29).
  • Respiratory agentsRespiratory agents: In isolated perfused rabbit lungs, BbCI (Kunitz-type inhibitor) from Bauhinia bauhinioides reduced edema formation; inhibition of neutrophil elastase did not occur (33).
  • Thyroid hormonesThyroid hormones: In a diabetic animal model, an extract of Bauhinia purpurea, administered with dexamethasone and metformin, normalized triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels (26). Increased T3 and T4 levels due to Bauhinia purpurea extracts were shown in another animal model (36).
  • Wound healing agentsWound healing agents: In animal research, topical leaf extracts of Bauhinia purpurea resulted in increased wound-breaking strength, dry tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue (38).

Bauhinia/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In animal research, Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (6), Bauhinia purpurea extract (93; 94), Bauhinia splendens stems (95), and Bauhinia microstachya extract and constituents (96; 97) were found to have analgesic effects. In vitro, a triterpene saponin from Bauhinia variegata was found to have antinociceptive activity (34).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: In vitro, Bauhinia tomentosa and Bauhinia vahlii root extract (2), Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (5), and Bauhinia constituents (98; 11) were found to have antibacterial effects.
  • AnticoagulantsAnticoagulants: In vitro, the aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata had anticoagulant and antifibrinogenolytic properties against snake venoms that stimulated blood clotting (9). Characterization of some protease inhibitors, such as Kunitz- and trypsin-inhibitors (Bauhinia ungulata; BuXI, Bauhinia variegata; BvTI) has been conducted (99); peptides from these inhibitors were found to either prolong prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time or alter blood-clotting assays. In vitro, Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) inactivated factor Xa and a prothrombin activator proteinase isolated from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristles venom (74).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre (31), extracts of Bauhinia tomentosa and Bauhinia vahlii roots (2), Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (5), and Bauhinia constituents (98; 11) were found to have antifungal effects.
  • Antigout agentsAntigout agents: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea normalized serum uric acid in a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model (29). In a diabetic pregnant animal model, Bauhinia forficata extract resulted in reduced uric acid concentrations (92).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: In animal research, Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (6), Bauhinia purpurea stem extract (93), Bauhinia tarapotensis leaf extract (101), Bauhinia purpurea leaf extract (94), Bauhinia tomentosa extract (7), and Bauhinia variegata constituents (102) were found to have anti-inflammatory effects. In animal research, BbCI, a plant neutrophil elastase inhibitor isolated from Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds, inhibited leukocyte migration, adhesion, and cytokine release during stimulated inflammatory conditions (103). In animal research, both Bauhinia racemosa stem bark extract (6) and Bauhinia purpurea leaf extract (94) were found to have antipyretic effects.
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In a diabetic animal model, an extract of Bauhinia purpurea, administered with dexamethasone and metformin, normalized serum lipid levels (26). In a diabetic animal model, Bauhinia forficata extracts reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (63). Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata reduced levels of cholesterol, very-low-density lipids (VLDL), and triglyceride, as well as increased levels of high-density lipids in an animal model (104). Hypocholesterolemic effects of proteins of Bauhinia retusa seeds were reported in animal research (69).
  • AntimalarialsAntimalarials: Antimalarial effects of Bauhinia constituents were shown in vitro (30; 31). In vitro, four metabolites of Bauhinia purpurea were shown to have antimalarial effects (98). Further details are limited at this time.
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre had cytotoxic effects against small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and oral-cavity cancer cell lines (31). Antiproliferative effects of lectins from Bauhinia variegata seeds were shown in vitro (1). Anticancer (including antimutagenic, antineoplastic, and cytotoxic) effects of various species of Bauhinia (including Bauhinia galpinii, Bauhinia variegata, and Bauhinia racemosa), as well as their constituents, were shown in vitro or in animal models (13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 23).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Antioxidant effects of various Bauhinia species, including Bauhinia racemosa stem bark, extracts of Bauhinia microstachya leaves, Bauhinia championii Benth., Bauhinia galpinii leaf extract, Bauhinia monandra leaf extracts, Bauhinia forficata extracts, and constituents of Bauhinia tarapotensis, were shown in vitro and in animal research (5; 108; 109; 110; 83; 111; 112; 113; 114; 91; 72; 104). In vitro, Bauhinia tomentosa methanol extract reduced lipid peroxidation and scavenged nitric oxide (7).
  • AntiparasiticsAntiparasitics: In vitro, the saline extract and an isolated protein from Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds inhibited cruzipain, a cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi (8). A triterpene saponin from Bauhinia variegata was found to have antischistosomal activity in vitro (34).
  • AntitoxinsAntitoxins: In vitro, the aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata had anticoagulant and antifibrinogenolytic properties against snake venoms that stimulated blood clotting (9). In animal research, the insulin-like effects of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract reduced hyperglycemia associated with Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom; however, the authors stated that it also enhanced the lethality of the venom (10).
  • Anti-ulcer agentsAnti-ulcer agents: In animal research, the methanolic extract of the flower buds of Bauhinia racemosa had antiulcerogenic effects against aspirin (37).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia showed antiviral effects against Herpes simplex virus (11; 12). Antiviral effects of Bauhinia species have also been shown in other research; however, details are limited at this time (105). In vitro, a lectin from Bauhinia variegata inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity (1).
  • HematologicsHematologics: In vitro, proteic fractions of Bauhinia forficata seeds had hemagglutinating activity against rabbit red blood cells (106). In vitro, lectins from Bauhinia carronii had hemagglutinating and mitogenic effects (107). A lectin from Bauhinia bauhinioides Mart. (Caesalpinoideae) seeds was found to have proinflammatory effects in animal research (89). An unusual reaction between N-specific Bauhinia lectin and type M erythrocytes has been discussed; however, further details are not available at this time (90). In an animal lymphoma model, an ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata reversed changes in hematological parameters (20); additional details are lacking at this time.
  • HepaticsHepatics: In animal research, Bauhinia variegata bark extract had hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride (25).
  • Hyperglycemics and hypoglycemicsHyperglycemics and hypoglycemics: In patients with type 2 diabetes, there was a lack of effect of Bauhinia forficata on fasting plasma glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin levels (73). However, animal studies have shown hypoglycemic effects of various Bauhinia species, including the dried or butanol extracts, as well as decoction, of Bauhinia forficata Link (62; 63; 64; 65), the butanolic extract or dried leaf infusion of Bauhinia candicans leaves (66; 67), Bauhinia divaricata (68), Bauhinia retusa (69), the methanolic extract of Bauhinia cheilandra leaves (70), and constituents (kaempferitrin) from Bauhinia forficata (71; 72). Reduced urinary glucose levels due to Bauhinia candicans (66) and Bauhinia forficata (65) were shown in animal models. In animal research, treatment with oral Bauhinia megalandra simultaneously with oral glucose improved glucose tolerance; this improvement did not occur when glucose was given subcutaneously (100).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: In animal research, Bauhinia tomentosa methanol extract increased total leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, the number of alpha-esterase positive cells, and spleen and thymus weights (7).
  • Mallotus repandusMallotus repandus: In Taiwan, several plant species are used as thang-kau-tin, including the stem of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., stem and the root of M. repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem of Bauhinia championii Benth., the stem with hooks of Uncaria hirsuta Haviland, and the stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla Miquel (115).
  • Renal agentsRenal agents: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea both protected against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity (29).
  • Respiratory agentsRespiratory agents: In isolated perfused rabbit lungs, BbCI (Kunitz-type inhibitor) from Bauhinia bauhinioides reduced edema formation; inhibition of neutrophil elastase was lacking (33).
  • Thang-kau-tinThang-kau-tin: In Taiwan, several plant species are used as thang-kau-tin, including the stem of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem and root of M. repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem of Bauhinia championii Benth., the stem with hooks of Uncaria hirsuta Haviland, and the stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla Miquel (115).
  • Thyroid agentsThyroid agents: In a diabetic animal model, an extract of Bauhinia purpurea, administered with dexamethasone and metformin, normalized triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels (26). Increased T3 and T4 levels due to Bauhinia purpurea extracts were shown in another animal model (36).
  • Uncaria hirsutaUncaria hirsuta: In Taiwan, several plant species are used as thang-kau-tin, including the stem of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem and root of M. repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem of Bauhinia championii Benth., the stem with hooks of Uncaria hirsuta Haviland, and the stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla Miquel (115).
  • Uncaria rhynchophyllaUncaria rhynchophylla: In Taiwan, several plant species are used as thang-kau-tin, including the stem of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem and root of M. repandus (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., the stem of Bauhinia championii Benth., the stem with hooks of Uncaria hirsuta Haviland, and the stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla Miquel (115).
  • Vulnerary agentsVulnerary agents: In animal research, topical leaf extracts of Bauhinia purpurea resulted in increased wound-breaking strength, dry tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue (38).

Bauhinia/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Bauhinia/Lab Interactions:
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: In vitro, the aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata had anticoagulant and antifibrinogenolytic properties against snake venoms that stimulated blood clotting (9). Characterization of some protease inhibitors, such as Kunitz- and trypsin-inhibitors (Bauhinia ungulata; BuXI, Bauhinia variegata; BvTI) has been conducted (99); peptides from these inhibitors were found to either prolong prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time or alter blood-clotting assays. In vitro, Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) inactivated factor Xa and a prothrombin activator proteinase isolated from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle venom (74).
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: In patients with type 2 diabetes, there was a lack of effect of Bauhinia forficata on fasting plasma glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin (73). However, animal studies have shown hypoglycemic effects of various Bauhinia species, including the dried or butanol extracts, as well as decoction, of Bauhinia forficata Link (62; 63; 64; 65), the butanolic extract or dried leaf infusion of Bauhinia candicans leaves (66; 67), Bauhinia divaricata (68), Bauhinia retusa (69), the methanolic extract of Bauhinia cheilandra leaves (70), and constituents (kaempferitrin) from Bauhinia forficata (71; 72). Reduced urinary glucose levels due to Bauhinia candicans (66) and Bauhinia forficata (65) were shown in animal models. In animal research, treatment with oral Bauhinia megalandra simultaneously with oral glucose improved glucose tolerance; this improvement did not occur when glucose was given subcutaneously (100).
  • Blood urea nitrogenBlood urea nitrogen: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea both protected against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity (29).
  • Hematological parametersHematological parameters: In vitro, proteic fractions of Bauhinia forficata seeds had hemagglutinating activity against rabbit red blood cells (106). In vitro, lectins from Bauhinia carronii had hemagglutinating and mitogenic effects (107). A lectin from Bauhinia bauhinioides Mart. (Caesalpinoideae) seeds was found to have proinflammatory effects in animal research (89). An unusual reaction between N-specific Bauhinia lectin and type M erythrocytes has been discussed; however, further details are not available at this time (90). In an animal lymphoma model, an ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata reversed changes in hematological parameters (20); additional details are lacking at this time.
  • Inflammatory mediatorsInflammatory mediators: In animal research, BbCI, a plant neutrophil elastase inhibitor isolated from Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds, inhibited leukocyte migration, adhesion, and cytokine release during stimulated inflammatory conditions (103). Levels of neutrophil chemoattractant-1 were also reduced in pleural exudates and serum, but there was a lack of effect on interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (103). In vitro, constituents from Bauhinia variegata inhibited interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-12 (116).
  • Lipid panelLipid panel: In a diabetic animal model, an extract of Bauhinia purpurea normalized serum concentrations of lipids when administered with dexamethasone and metformin (26). In a diabetic animal model, Bauhinia forficata extracts reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (63). Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata reduced levels of cholesterol, very-low-density lipids (VLDL), and triglyceride, as well as increased levels of high-density lipids in an animal model (104). Hypocholesterolemic effects of proteins of Bauhinia retusa seeds were reported in animal research (69).
  • Liver enzymesLiver enzymes: In an animal liver tumor model, an ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata reduced elevated levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (21).
  • Packed cell volumePacked cell volume: In an animal lymphoma model, an ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata reversed changes in packed cell volume (20).
  • Serum creatinineSerum creatinine: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea normalized serum creatinine in a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model (29).
  • Serum uric acidSerum uric acid: In animal research, ethanol extracts of either the leaf or the unripe pod of Bauhinia purpurea normalized serum uric acid in a gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity model (29). In a diabetic pregnant animal model, Bauhinia forficata extract resulted in reduced uric acid concentrations (92).
  • Thyroid hormonesThyroid hormones: In an animal diabetic model, an extract of Bauhinia purpurea normalized triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels when administered with dexamethasone and metformin (26). Increased T3 and T4 levels due to Bauhinia purpurea extracts were shown in another animal model (36).
  • Urinary glucoseUrinary glucose: Reduced urinary glucose levels due to Bauhinia candicans (66) and Bauhinia forficata (65) were shown in animal models.
  • Viral titersViral titers: In vitro, constituents of Bauhinia showed antiviral effects against Herpes simplex virus (11; 12). Antiviral effects of Bauhinia species have also been shown in other research; however, details are limited at this time (105).
  • White blood cellsWhite blood cells: In animal research, Bauhinia tomentosa methanol extract increased total leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, the number of alpha-esterase positive cells, and spleen and thymus weights (7).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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