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Trumpet satinash (Syzygium claviflorum)


Also listed as: Syzigium claviflorum, Acmenosperma claviflorum
Related terms

Related Terms
  • 1Beta-hydroxy-3-oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3beta,7beta,15alpha-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3beta-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxo-11alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, Acmenosperma claviflorum spp., BetA, betulin, betulinic acid, betulinic acid amide, betulinic acid methyl ester, betulinic aldehyde, dehydrocostuslactone, IC9564, lupeol, methyl betulinate, mokko lactone, Myrtaceae (family), NVX-207, oleanolic acid, platanic acid, Syzygium claviflorum, YKFH312.

  • Trumpet satinash (Syzygium claviflorum) is a member of the Myrtaceae family, which includes 4,500-5,000 species of evergreen trees or shrubs that are found in the Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Islands, and tropical South America. Betulinic acid is the main constituent of trumpet satinash and is believed to be responsible for its effects.
  • Betulinic acid may have antitumor activity. Betulinic acid derivatives may have antiretroviral activity. However, there is currently a lack of clinical evidence in support of the use of trumpet satinash for any condition.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)

Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Anthelmintic (expels parasitic worms), antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiviral, cancer, heart disease, liver protection, parasites.


Adults (18 years and older)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for trumpet satinash in adults. Twenty-five milligrams, 50 milligrams, 75 milligrams (with a 150 milligram loading dose), 100 milligrams, 150 milligrams, and 200 milligrams of bevirimat (an anti-HIV drug derived from a betulinic-like compound isolated from trumpet satinash) has been taken by mouth.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for trumpet satinash in children.


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.


  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to trumpet satinash (Syzygium claviflorum), its constituents, or members of the Myrtaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Betulinic acid may decrease sperm motility. Caution is advised when used by male patients.
  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to trumpet satinash (Syzygium claviflorum), its constituents, or members of the Myrtaceae family.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is currently a lack of safety information on the use of trumpet satinash during pregnancy or lactation. Although not well studied in humans, betulinic acid has been shown to accumulate in mammary glands.


Interactions with Drugs

  • Trumpet satinash may interact with agents that expel parasitic worms, agents that may damage the liver, anticancer agents, anti-inflammatory agents, antimalarial agents, antiretroviral agents, antiviral agents, or fertility agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Trumpet satinash may interact with herbs and supplements that expel parasitic worms, herbs and supplements that may damage the liver, anticancer herbs and supplements, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antimalarial herbs and supplements, antiretroviral herbs and supplements, antiviral herbs and supplements, or fertility herbs and supplements.

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (

  1. Dang Z, Lai W, Qian K, et al. Betulinic acid derivatives as human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) inhibitors. J Med Chem 2009;52(23):7887-7891.
  2. Drag M, Surowiak P, Drag-Zalesinska M, et al. Comparision of the cytotoxic effects of birch bark extract, betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines. Molecules 2009;14(4):1639-1651.
  3. Drag-Zalesinska M, Kulbacka J, Saczko J, et al. Esters of betulin and betulinic acid with amino acids have improved water solubility and are selectively cytotoxic toward cancer cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009;19(16):4814-4817.
  4. Eksioglu-Demiralp E, Kardas ER, Ozgul S, et al. Betulinic acid protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis. Phytother Res 2010;24(3):325-332.
  5. Fulda S. Betulinic acid: a natural product with anticancer activity. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009;53(1):140-146.
  6. Fulda S. Betulinic Acid for cancer treatment and prevention. Int J Mol.Sci 2008;9(6):1096-1107.
  7. Fulda S, Kroemer G. Targeting mitochondrial apoptosis by betulinic acid in human cancers. Drug Discov Today 2009;14(17-18):885-890.
  8. Goff RD, Thorson JS. Enhancing the divergent activities of betulinic acid via neoglycosylation. Org Lett 2009;11(2):461-464.
  9. Karna E, Palka JA. Mechanism of betulinic acid inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Neoplasma 2009;56(4):361-366.
  10. Mullauer FB, Kessler JH, Medema JP. Betulinic acid induces cytochrome c release and apoptosis in a Bax/Bak-independent, permeability transition pore dependent fashion. Apoptosis 2009;14(2):191-202.
  11. Nakagawa-Goto K, Yamada K, Taniguchi M, et al. Cancer preventive agents 9. Betulinic acid derivatives as potent cancer chemopreventive agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009;19(13):3378-3381.
  12. Qian K, Yu D, Chen CH, et al. Anti-AIDS agents. 78. Design, synthesis, metabolic stability assessment, and antiviral evaluation of novel betulinic acid derivatives as potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents. J Med Chem 2009;52(10):3248-3258.
  13. Theo A, Masebe T, Suzuki, Y, et al. , a traditional South African medicinal plant, contains an anti HIV-1 constituent, betulinic acid. Tohoku J Exp Med 2009;217(2):93-99.
  14. Willmann M, Wacheck V, Buckley J, et al. Characterization of NVX-207, a novel betulinic acid-derived anti-cancer compound. Eur J Clin Invest 2009;39(5):384-394.
  15. Yao D, Li H, Gou Y, et al. Betulinic acid-mediated inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus by suppression of manganese superoxide dismutase expression. FEBS J 2009;276(9):2599-2614.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (

The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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